Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL)

For kidney and ureteral stones that are too large (usually larger than 2 centimeters), too numerous, or too dense to be treated by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) or ureteroscopy, PCNL (percutaneous nephrolithotomy or stone extraction) offers a minimally invasive method of removing these stones. Historically, large kidney and ureteral stones were removed through open … Continue reading Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL)